Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 22-38
The avifauna of isolated planted forests in the steppe zone of the Crimean Peninsula and its historical changes
A. N. Tsvelykh
Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
The avifauna of fifteen isolated planted forests in the steppe zone of the Crimea was studied in 2004-2011. Fauna of these forests includes 46 bird species. Two species, namely Fringilla coelebs and Parus major, are recorded in all plantations. Oriolus oriolus occurs almost everywhere (occurrence – 93.3%). Other species such as Carduelis carduelis (73.3%), Chloris chloris (66.7%), Columba palumbus, Streptopelia decaocto, Dendrocopos syriacus, Corvus cornix, Passer domesticus (60%), Streptopelia turtur, Sylvia atricapilla, Luscinia megarhynchos (53.3%), Sturnus vulgaris, Sylvia communis, Pica pica, Passer montanus (46.7%), Cuculus canorus (40%), Lanius collurio, Lanius minor, Phoenicurus phoenicurus (36%), Falco vespertinus, Falco tinnuculus, Phasianus colchicus (33.3%), Asio otus (29%), Buteo buteo, Upupa epops, Turdus merula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Motacilla alba (20%), Perdix perdix, Caprimulgus europaeus, Hippolais icterina, Luscinia luscinia, Parus caeruleus, Acanthis cannabina, Emberiza hortulana (13.3%), Pernis apivorus, Otus scops, Anthus trivialis, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corax, Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Aegithalos caudatus, Parus ater, Emberiza calandra (6.7%) are less common.
The main source of avifauna of the steppe planted forests is the forest fauna of the Crimean Mountains. However, some elements of the fauna such as Luscinia luscinia, Hippolais icterina, Dendrocopos syriacus, Streptopelia decaocto appeared in these plantations as a result of dispersal from outside the Crimean peninsula. The analysis of «rain-calls» of Fringilla coelebs, dwelling in the areas, has shown that most of them are inhabited by birds of the Crimean Mountain endemic subspecies F. c. solomkoi. However, the plantations in the northern and north-western parts of the peninsula are inhabited by birds of the nominative subspecies, proving their appearance from the north. Thus, some planted forests of the steppe zone of the Crimea are inhabited by the birds which originate not only from the forests of the Crimean Mountains, but also from outside the peninsula.
Comparison of avifauna of the planted forests studied in the 19th-21st centuries has shown that in the 19th century their avifauna was formed at the expense of bird invasions from the steppe and intrazonal habitats as well as from the forests of Crimean Mountains. In the 20th century the fauna of planted forests was enriched mainly due to invasions of dendrophilous bird species of the forest areas of the Crimean Mountains. Some species (Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla, Fringilla coelebs) were present in the fauna of the planted forests in the early 20th century, but most of other new species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Chloris chloris, Acanthis cannabina, Parus caeruleus, Caprimulgus europaeus, Cuculus canorus) appeared only in the middle of the century. Since the second half of the 20th century, the fauna of the Crimean steppe planted forests has been enriching at the expence of local Crimean species (Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Asio otus, Columba palumbus, Buteo buteo), invasive (Streptopelia decaocto, Dendrocopos syriacus) and the northern forest-steppe (Luscinia luscinia, Hippolais icterina) ones.
Read the paper in a PDF file
- Averin, Yu. V. (1953). Harmful and useful vertebrates of tree-shrub plantations of the steppe Crimea. Transactions of the Crimean branch of Academy of Sciences, USSR. Zoology, 3 (2), 6-35. [in Russian].
- Averin, Yu. V. (1955). Agricultural significance of some birds of the steppe Crimea. Transactions of the Crimean branch of Academy of Sciences, Ukr.SSR. Zoology, 9 (3), 111-131. [in Russian].
- Appak, B. A. (2013). The population of birds of the forest park «Oktyabrsky lesok». Reserves of the Crimea. Biodiversity and Nature Conservation in the Azov-Black Sea region. Proceedings of the 7th International scientific-practical conference. Simferopol, 24-26 October, 2013. Simferopol, 283-287. [in Russian]
- Grishchenko, V. N., & Yablonovska-Grishchenko, E.D. (2012). New data about rare and insufficiently known bird species of the steppe zone of Ukraine. Berkut, 21 (1-2), 1-8. [in Ukrainian].
- Kostin, Yu. V. (1983). Birds of the Crimea. Moscow: Nauka. [in Russian]
- Kratzig, H. (1943) Der Regenruf des Buchfinken auf der Krim. Ornithologische Monatsberichte: 51 (3/4), 101.
- Kucherenko, V. N. (2016). Birds of the artificial forest near Mikhailovka, Saki District (AR of Crimea, Ukraine). Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 19, 155-159. [in Russian].
- Popenko, V. M., & Tsvelykh, A. N. (2013). The appearance of the Coal Tit (Parus ater) in the fauna of an artificial isolated wood area on the Kerch Peninsula (South Ukraine). Berkut, 22 (1), 78. [in Russian].
- Pusanow, J. (1933) Attempt of Taurian avifauna revision. Bulletin of Moscow Society for Nature Investigators. Biological Department: 42 (1), 3-41. [in German].
- Schatiloff, J. (1860) Katalog meines Ornithologischen Museums der Vogel Tauriens, im Dorfe Schatilofka (Tamak) an der Mundung des Karasu ins faule Meer nebst einigen an Ort und Stelle gesammelten Notizen. Bulletin de la Societe Imp. des Naturalistes de Moscou: 33(4), 488-518.
- Tovpinets, N. N., & Evstafyev, I. L. (2005). Long-eared Owl Asio otus L. in the Crimea. Proceedings of the 4th International scientific conference «Faltz Fein readings». May, 18-20, 2005. Kherson, 186-190. [in Russian].
- Tsvelykh, A. N. (2005). Expansion of the Syrian Woodpecker in the Crimea. Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 8, 198-199. [in Russian].
- Tsvelykh, A. N. (2006). Elements of the avifauna of the Mountain Crimea in artificial isolated wood areas of the Kerch Peninsula. Vestnik zoologii, 40 (3), 241-248. [in Russian].
- Tsvelykh, A. N. (2009). About distribution of the Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia on the Crimean Peninsula and adjacent territories. Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 12, 169-172. [in Russian].
- Tsvelykh, A. N. (2010). Meeting expansion ofnatural habitats ofthe Nightingale, Luscinia megarhynchos, and Thrush Nightingale, L. luscinia, (Aves, Turdidae) on the Crimean Peninsula and adjacent territories. Vestnik zoologii, 44 (6), 519-523 [in Russian].
- Tsvelykh, A. N. (2011). Distribution of the Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina (Vieill.) in the steppe zone of Left-bank Ukraine and its appearance in the Crimea. Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 14, 63-67. [in Russian].
- Tsvelykh, A. N. (2012). Expansion of the area of Iranian Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus samamisicus Hablizl on the Crimean Peninsula. Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 16, 56-62. [in Russian].
- Tsvelykh, A. N. (2015). Avifauna of oldest artificial Shatilov's wood in the Steppe Crimea and its historical changes. Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 18, 75-83. [in Russian].