Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 41-59
Formation of nesting bird communities in parks on the gradient of anthropic load in Kiev metropolis
T. V. Shupova, S. N. Koniakin
Institute for Evolutionary Ecology of the NAS of Ukraine
In settlements, safe places for birds nesting and feeding need to be created. The purpose of the work is to assess the state and identify vectors of the formation of nesting bird communities in parks under the pressure of anthropic load in the metropolis. In parks of Kyiv 62 species of birds nest. Such faunogenetic complexes like European nemoral (25.0–53.3%), Desert-mountain (12.0–27.8%) and Forest-steppe (6.9–25.0%) prevail. The number of community species in each of parks is 49–12, the average nesting density is 0.08±0.02–0.9±0.19 pairs / ha, and the dispersion is 0.12–1.62. With the combination of anthropic load on biotopes of more than 140 points with a small area of parks (2.0–16.5 ha), the species composition of communities decreases, and the average nesting density and density dispersion increase. Dominated by density: Parus major, Columba livia, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula, Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Fringilla coelebs, Columba palumbus, Apus apus, Ficedula albicollis, Erithacus rubecula, Turdus pilaris. All birds in communities are obligate synanthropes (12.9%; n=62) or hemisinanthropes. Obligate synanthropes are distributed in communities of 0-7 species. According to the gradient of increasing anthropic load on parks, logarithmic trends show a slight increase in the percentage share of obligate synanthropes in the species composition and in the number of breeding pairs. 47–70% nest on trees, 0–14.3% in shrubs, 0–13.0% on ground and in buildings. In parks, birds (16–38% of the species composition), in addition to using species-specific stations, nest in the cavities of buildings. Such species like Motacilla alba L., Sturnus vulgaris, Ficedula albicollis, Muscicapa striata Pallas, Erithacus rubecula, Parus major, Passer domesticus, Passer montanus nest in this way. Due to this nesting strategy, the need of the birds in hollows and the dependence on the woodpeckers in the community decreases. High parameters of the Shannon index (1.51–3.14) and Pielou index (0.61–0.95) were revealed, with low data of the Berger-Parker index (0.15–0.61). With an anthropic load of more than 160 points, there is a sharp decrease in species diversity, evenness of species, and increased dominance pressure. Cluster analysis showed the division of bird communities into similarity groups according to the area of the parks, the proximity of parks to the outskirts of the city and large forest tracts of the area and specifics of the anthropic load.
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