Transactions
of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station
Branta Cover Language of the article: Russian Cite: P, V. . Belik (2019). The nature of the stay of the Manx Shear-water on the Black and Azov seas. Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 22, 78-93 Keywords: Manx Shearwater, Puffinus yelkouan, distribution, number, phenology of migrations, the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov Published online: 14.01.2020 Views: 277 Branta copyright Branta license

Branta Issues > Issue №22 (2019)

Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 78-93

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/branta2019.22.078

The nature of the stay of the Manx Shear-water on the Black and Azov seas

V. P. Belik

Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

Manx Shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan) nests on the Mediterranean sea. Its breeding begins at the age of 5-6 years. The nesting period usually begins in March-April, but in January-February the birds concentrate at their colonies. In the colonies, they are exclusively nocturnal, and they often scream. The female and male hatch the clutch for 48-52 days, changing each other after 3-5 days. Nestlings begin to hatch from the beginning of May to the middle of June, and their feeding lasts about 60-68 nights. Nestlings begin to fly at the age of about 10 weeks. Egg waste is 22%, the mortality of nestlings is 5%, the mortality of young individuals up to 2 years reaches 73%, and up to 10% of adult nesting birds per year die.
Shearwaters in large numbers constantly fly to feed on the Black Sea. Their migrating flocks reach 20-30 thousands of individuals here, and hundreds of thousands of birds can gather in places of forage accumulations. In winter, flocks of young and immature shearwaters concentrate near the coast of the Caucasus and Crimea, where the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), which serves as the main food for birds, winters. In spring, shearwaters probably migrate to the North-Western shallow areas of the Black Sea, where the Black Sea anchovy (E. e. ponticus) spawns and feeds. Adult birds from the Aegean sea also regularly fly here. In summer, part of shearwaters feed in the same areas in the North-West of the Black Sea, and some move closer to the Kerch Strait, where the birds get schooling pelagic fish in the sea away from the shores of the Kerch and Taman peninsulas. In autumn, when the Azov anchovy (E. e. maeoticus) comes out of the Sea of Azov to winter in the Black Sea, almost all shearwaters gather against the mouth of the Kerch Strait. In the Black Sea during the winter, all shearwaters get no more than 5-10% of the wintering here anchovy population.
 

Read the paper in a PDF file
References:
  1. Belik, V.P. (1992). New and rare species of birds of Rostov Region. Caucasian Ornithol. Bulletin, (3), 53-74. [in Russian].
  2. Bernatsky, G.I. (1958). Birds of Pitsundo reserve: Preliminary review. Proceedings of the Abkhazian Museum, 3, 31-81 [in Russian].
  3. Beskaravayny, M.M. (2008). Birds of seacosts of the South Crimea. Simferopol [in Russian].
  4. Bianki, V.L. (1913). Colymbiformes and Procellfariiformes. (Vol. 2). Saint Petersburg [in Russian].
  5. Cramp, S., & Simmons, K.E.L. (1977). The Birds of the Western Palearctic: Ostrich to Ducks (Vol.1) . Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press. [in English].
  6. Drozdov, V.V. (2011). Long-term variability of the Black Sea fi shery resources: trends, causes and prospects. Proceedings of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University, (21), 137-154 [in Russian].
  7. European birds of conservation concern: populations, trends and national responsibilities. (2017). Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International [in English].
  8. Frank, F. (1950). Die Vogel von Opuk (Schwarz-Meergebiet). Bonner zoologische Beiträge, 1 (2-4), 144-214 [in German].
  9. Frank, F. (1952). Massenzug von Sturmtauchern über dem Schwarzen Meer. J. Ornithologie, 93 (2), 142-143 [in German].https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01951027
  10. Garcia Robles, H., Deceuninck, B., & Micol, T. (2016). Status report for Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan (2nd ed.). Rochefort: BirdLife France [in English].
  11. Kazakov, B.A., Lomadze, N.H., & Belik, V.P. (2004). Birds of the North Caucasus: Gaviiformes, Podicipediformes, Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicopteriformes, Anseriformes. (Vol. 1). Rostov-on-Don: Rostov State Pedagogical Publishers [in Russian].
  12. Kostin, Yu. V. (1983). Birds of the Crimea. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
  13. Kostin, Yu.V., Spangenberg, E.P., & Tkachenko, A.A. (1963). Notes on the ornithofauna of the mountain-forest Crimea. Proceedings of the Crimean State Forest and Hunting Preserve on forestry and hunting, 7, 89-96 [in Russian].
  14. Kostyuchenko, R.A. (1952). Manx shearwater on the Black Sea. Priroda, (8), 120 [in Russian].
  15. Kozlova, E.V. (1947). Fauna of the USSR. Birds: Gavia, Procellariiformes (3rd ed., Vol. 1). Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka [in Russian].
  16. Menzbir, M. A. (1918). Birds of Russia (European Russia, Siberia, Turkestan, Transcaspian region and Caucasus). (3rd ed., Vol. 1). Moscow [in Russian].
  17. Nankinov, D.N. (1990). Procellariiformes. Fauna of Bulgaria: Aves (Vol. 20). Sofi a. [in Bulgarien].
  18. Nordmann, A. (1840). Catalogue raisonne des oiseaux de la faune Pontique. In Voyage dans la Russie meridionale et la Crimee par Mr. A.Demidoff (Vol. 3, pp. 67–306). Paris [in French].
  19. Ogulchansky, A.Ya. (1967). Manx shearwater on the sea of Azov. Ornithology, (8), 377-378 [in Russian].
  20. Ptushenko, E.S. (1915). To the avifauna of Kuban Region. Messager Ornothologique, (2), 11-117 [in Russian].
  21. Ptushenko, E.S. (1939). On some new and rare birds of the Northern part of the Black sea coast of the Caucasus. Archives of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University, (5), 33-42 [in russian].
  22. Raine, A.F., Borg, J.J., Raine, H., & Phillips, R.A. (2013). Migration strategies of the Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan. J.Ornithology, 154 (2), 411-422 [in English]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0905-4
  23. Robel, D., & Königstedt, D., 1976. Das Vorkommen des Schwarzschnabel-Sturmtauchers (Puffinus puffinus) an der Westküste des Schwarzen Meers. Faunist. Abh. Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 6, 1-15 [in German].
  24. Salnikov, N.E. (1957). Wintering of Scopoli‘s shearwater (Puffi nus puffi nus yelkouan) on the Black Sea and their relation to the distribution of anchovy. Journal of Ichthyology, (8), 188-190 [in Russian].
  25. Savitsky, R.M. (2013). The nature of the stay of Levantine shearwater Puffinus yelkouan in the South of Russia. Russian Ornithological Journal, 22 (910), 2244-2248 [in Russian].
  26. Sharleman, N.V. (1936). Shearwater on the sea of Azov. Priroda, (6), 118 [in Russian].
  27. Shchogolev, I.V., Petrovich, Z.O., & Shchogolev, S.I. (2016). Ecology of vulnerable bird species that inhabited northern coastal area of the Black Sea (Vol.2). Odessa [in Russian].
  28. Shuntov, V.P. (1982). Birds of the USSR: A history of study. Procellariiformes. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
  29. Smohorzhevskyi, L.O. (1959). Fish-eating birds of Ukraine. Kyiv: Kyiv University [in Ukrainian].
  30. Smohorzhevskyi, L.O. (1979). Fauna of Ukraine. Birds: Gagars, mink, tubercles, veslonogi, holinists, flamingos (1rd ed., Vol. 5). Kyiv: Naukova Dumka. [in Ukrainian]
  31. Snow, D.W., & Perrins, C.M. (Eds.) (1998). The birds of the Western Palearctic: Concise edition (Vol. 1). Non-Passerines. Oxford – N. Y.: Oxford University Press. [in English].
  32. Sudilovskaya, A.M. (1951). Birds of the Soviet Union: Procellariiformes (Vol. 2). Moscow: Sovetskaya Nauka [in Russian].
  33. Tilba, P. A., & Kazakov, B. (2001). Manx shearwater in the North-Eastern Black Sea region (pp. 292–293). Presented at the Geo-Ecological and Bio-Ecological Challenges of the Northern Black Sea region, Tiraspol [in Russian].
  34. Zernov, S.A. (1913). To question about study of life of the Black Sea. Notes of Imperial Academy of Sciences, 32 (1), 1-299 [in Russian].