of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station
Branta Cover Language of the article: Russian Cite: Winter, S. V., Gorlov, P. I. (2019). About ontogenesis of Common Crane chicks. Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 22, 5-39 Keywords: ontogenesis, new embryonic apterium, Common Crane (Grus g. grus), Ukraine Published online: 08.01.2020 Views: 1000 Branta copyright Branta license

Branta Issues > Issue №22 (2019)

Branta: Transactions of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station, 5-39


About ontogenesis of Common Crane chicks

S. V. Winter 1, P. I. Gorlov 2

1 - Ziegelhuettenweg, 58, 60598 Frankfurt Main, Germany;
2 - Research Institute of Biodiversity of Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems of Ukraine

There are no publications on the ontogenesis of Common Crane (Grus grus) chicks have been available up to now. We hope that our data collected in Eastern Ukraine in 1989–1998 will fill this void. In the period from hatching to the age of 43 days, 137 chicks from 30 nests were measured 935 times (2.25 measurements per chicks from one nest on average) and weighed 152 times. Pterilography and outer morphology of Common Crane chicks was described on the basis of the samples collected during the studies of reproductive biology of five crane species (G. grus, G. japonensis, G. vipio, G. canadensis and Anthropoides virgo). Age-related changes of the following characteristics were analyzed: coloration of the iris, pupil, eyelids, bill, tongue, mouth cavity, tibia, tarsus, toes, claws on toes; coloration and morphology of the egg tooth, claws on wings; the growth of the bill, the 3rd toe and its claw, tarsus, and body mass. In Common, White-naped, Sandhill, and Demoiselle cranes the mandibles of newly hatched chicks are not fused on the tip, which has a kind of a notch at that time. In Common Cranes, the left and right mandibles fuse at the age of 8 days. The grapth on the growth of the bill, the 3rd toe and its claw, body mass, and the length of tarsus are plotted and formulas expressing regressions of these characteristics are presented. Changes in the yolk sac and body mass during the first ten-day period of life are described, as well
as differences between chicks from the same nest and their behaviour in this period. А new yolk apterium for precocial birds (Apterium vitellinum) was described. The pterylosis of the upper surface of the wrist in downy chicks of five crane species was compared. The embryonic apterium of the upper surface of the wrist (Apterium manuale embryonale) in chicks is much larger than in the definitive plumage of Common Crane

Read the paper in a PDF file
  1. Alonso, J. A.,& Alonso, J. C. (1989). Der Graue Kranich: Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei. (H. Prange, Ed.). Wittenberg-Lutherstadt [in German].
  2. Archibald, G. W., & Viess, D. L. (1979). Captive propagation at the International Crane  Foundation. In 1978 Crane Workshop (pp. 51–74). Colorado: Rockport. TX. Ft. Collins.
  3. Blahy, B. (2004). Das Lächeln des Kranichs. Ein Tagebuch. Berlin: NEUNPLUS 1 [in German].
  4. Firsova, L.V. (1975). Age-related changes in feather structures of non-passerine birds. Ornithological research in the Far East. Vladivostok [in Russian].
  5. Gurtovoy, N.N., & Dzerzhinsky, F.Ya.(1992). Practical zootomy of vertebrate. Birds. Mammals. Moscow [in Russian].
  6. Heinroth, O., & Heinroth, M. (1928). Graukranich, Grus grus. Die Vögel Mitteleuropas (Bd. 3). Leiptig-Jena-Berlin [in German].
  7. Ilyashenko, V. Yu. (2005). Feathers of nestlings of cranes. Cranes of Eurasia. Biology, conservation, propagation, (2), 32-40 [in Russian].
  8. Kashentseva, T.A. (1998). Structure and change of plumage in Cranes. Candidate of Biology Sciences Dissertation. Moscow [in Russian].
  9. Kashentseva, T. A. (1988). Pterylography of Cranes. Palearctic Cranes. Vladivostok. [in Russian].
  10. Kashentseva, T.A. (1995). Morphology and formation of juvenile plumage of Cranes. Scientific basis for the protection and rational use of birds. Ryazan [in Russian].
  11. Kashentseva, T.A., & Tsvetkova, I.S. (1995). Fetal plumage of Cranes. Scientific basis for the protection and rational use of birds. Ryazan [in Russian].
  12. Köhler, W., Schachtel, G., & Voleske, P. (1996). Biostatistik. Einfürung in die Biometrie für Biologen und Agrarwissenschaftler (2-te Auflage). Berlin-Heidelberg [in German].
  13. Lukas, A.M. (1979). Anatomia topographica externa. Nomina anatomica avium. J.J. Baumel (Ed.), An annotated anatomical dictionary of birds. London - San Francisco [in English].
  14. Lukas, A.M., & Stettenheim, P.R. (1972). Avian Anatomy – Integument. - Agric. Washington [in English].
  15. Meine, C., & Archibald, G.W. (Eds) (1996). The Cranes: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. Gland- Switzerland-Cambridge [in English].
  16. Mewes, W. (2018). Die Schlupfmasse von Kranichküken Grus grus im Untersuchungsgebiet „Goldberg“ von 2005 bis 2018. Ornithologischer Rundbrief für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 49, 1-2, 21-26 [in German].
  17. Miikkulainen, A. (1999). Field identification of sex and age of crane chicks. In Proceedings 3. Europäische Kranichtagung 1996 and aktuelle Beitrage (pp. 73-76). Halle-Wittenberg [in English].
  18. Moll, K.H. (1963). Kranichbeobachtungen aus dem Müritzgebiet. Beitr.Vogelk, (8), 221-253, 368-388, 412-439 [in German].
  19. Neufeldt, I.A. (1970). Downy chicks of some Asian birds. Ornithological Transactions for the 100th anniversary of the birth of academic P.P. Sushkin, 111-181 [in Russian].
  20. Plokhinsky, N.A. (1970). Biometrics (2nd ed). Moscow [in Russian].
  21. Prange, G. (Ed.). (2016). Die Welt der Kraniche. Leben – Umfeld – Schutz. Verbreitung aller 15 Arten. Halle-Wittenberg [in German].
  22. Romer, A., & Parsons, T. Anatomy of Vertebrates (Vol. 1). Moscow [in Russian].
  23. Schuster, A. (1984). Handaufzucht und Entwicklung von Kranichen. Gef. Welt, (108), 128-131 [in German].
  24. Shulpin, L.M. (1940). Ornithology. (Structure, life and classification of birds). Leningrad [in Russian].
  25. Smirensky, S.M., & Ilyashenko, V.Yu. (2005). The structure of age plumage of White-naped Crane. Cranes of Eurasia. Biology, conservation, propagation, (2), 74-82 [in Russian].
  26. Starck, J.M. (1989). Zeitmuster der Ontogenesen bei nestflüchtenden und nesthockenden Vögeln. Cour. Forsch. Inst. Senkenberg, (114), 319 [in German].
  27. Winter, S. V. (2003). Zur Fortpflanzungstrategie des Graukranichs Grus grus in der Ukraine. In A. Salvi (Ed.), Proc. 4th European Crane Workshop 2000 (pp. 32–42). France [in German].
  28. Winter, S.V. (2002). The structure of Sandhill Crane population, nests, egg laying and phenology of breeding in North-Western Chukotka. Cranes of Eurasia (distribution, number, biology, (1), 191-215 [in Russian].
  29. Winter, S.V. (2005). Corrections and additions to the article «The structure of Sandhill Crane population, nests, egg laying and phenology of breeding in North-Western Chukotka». Cranes of Eurasia, (2), 30-31 [in Russian].
  30. Winter, S.V. (2008). Egg weight and its use for studying the ecology of Common Crane. Cranes of Eurasia (biology, distribution, migration), (3), 20-50 [in Russian].
  31. Winter, S.V., Gorlov, P.I., & Andryushchenko ,Y.A. (1999). Neues aus der Forschung an paläarktischen Kranichen. Die Vogelwelt, (120), 367-375 [in German].
  32. Winter, S.V., Gorlov, P.I., & Shevtsov, A.A. (2017). Phenology of social groups of Common Crane (Grus grus) in southern part of the breeding range in Ukraine. Berkut, 26 (2) 125-148 [in Russian].
  33. Winter, S.V., Markin, Yu.M., & Kashentseva, T.A.(2016). On some phenotypic features of Common Crane, Grus grus. The Russian journal of ornithology, 25 ( 1241), 269-299 [in Russian].